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语法Gramma:能愿动词谓语句(1)Sentences with the optative verbs (1): “会”, “能”, “可以”, “应该”

Optative verbs such as “会”, “能”, “可以”, “应该”, and “要” are often placed before verbs to express ability, possibility, or willingness. Optative verbs such as “会”, “能” and “可以” indicate the ability to do something and can be translated with the English word “can; be able to”.

It should be noted, though, that ” emphasizes skills acquired through learning, while “” and “可以” express the possession of skills in general.

SubjectPredicate
OpVVO
会不会汉语?
不会打球。 
这个汉字。
游泳? 
你朋友他英语吗?
能不能喝酒? 
可不可以我?

 “能” and “可以” are also be used to express permission or prohibition under specific circumstances. For example:

SubjectPredicate
TWOpVV     O
我们八点能不能到    那儿?
明天不能上     课。
(我) 可以进来        吗?
这儿 不可以上      课。

 The optative verb “应该” is used to express needs arising from moral or factual necessity.

SubjectPredicate
OpVV        O
应该来 上    课。
不应该去       那儿。

 Note:

1. In a sentence with an optative verb, the affirmative-negative form (V/A-not-V/A) is formed by juxtaposing the affirmative and negative forms of the optative verb that is OpV-not- OpV.

OpV  +  不  +   OpV  +   V   O

会      不       会       说  汉语

能      不       能       去

可以    不      可以     介绍

2. The negative form of “能” and “可以” is usually “不能”. “不可以” is also used to express prohibition.

这儿不能吸烟。(No smoking here.)

3. To answer briefly, one may use only the optative verb. For example:

你会说汉语吗?– 不会。

可以进来吗?– 可以。

4. Some of the optative verbs are also general verbs. For example:

他 会 英语。

我 要 咖啡。

October 24, 2010

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