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语法Grammar: “没有”(méiyǒu) 和 “不”(bù)

“没有”和“不”都可以用在动词前面表示否定,但是它们用在不同的句子里。

Both méiyǒu and bù can be used before a verb to mean not, but they are used in different kinds of sentences.

1. <1>“不”的典型用法是表示主观的态度,例如:

Bù is typically used to express a subjective attitude, such as:

我以前不看电视,现在不看电视,以后也不看电视。

(I did not watch TV in the past, do not watch TV now, and will not watch TV in the future.)

我现在不回宿舍。

(I will no got back to dorm now.)

<2>“不”也用来表示习惯性的动作或静态的情况。因为形容词做句子谓语时功能上如同静态的动词,所以对形容词的否定使用“不”。如,

It is also used in sentences that express habitual actions or stative situations. Since adjectives function as stative verbs when used as the predicate of a sentence, they are always negated by bù:

昨天晚上我很不舒服。

(I was very sick last night.)

图书馆离宿舍不太远。

(The library is not too far from the dorm.)

2. “没有”(没)用来对关于过去客观事实的陈述,表示所说的某个动作行为(或状况)过去没有发生。例如:

Instead, méiyǒu (often shortened to méi) is used in negative statements about factual past events, which indicate that some action (not a state) did not occur in the past. For example:

大卫前天没来上课。

(David didn’t come to class the day before yesterday.)

我昨天没有预习。

(I didn’t preview this lesson yesterday.)

October 22, 2010

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