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汉语语法Chinese Grammar: Have you got The 把 Sentence Construction? (Quiz!)

The following two patterns are commonly used to form 把 bǎ sentences.

1.      A sentence with a verb and direct and indirect objects

S (没)把O directV+ other elementO indirect
小     李寄  给  了小     王
Xiǎo Lǐxìnjì   gěi leXiǎo Wang

Xiao Li has sent the letter to Xiao Wang.

S (没)把O directV+ other elementO indirect
小     李寄 到中国           去 了
Xiǎo Lǐxìnjì  dàoZhōngguó qù le

Xiao Li has sent the letter to China.

These two sentences show how the direct and indirect objects are connected by the verb complements 寄 给 jì gěi send to and 寄 到 jì dào send to. (The complement 给 gěi to is followed by persons and the complement 到 dào to is followed by places.) The above examples also demonstrate that ‘aspect’ 了le is placed after the verbs: in the first example it is placed after 寄 给 jì gěi send to and in the second example it is placed after 去 qù.

2.      A sentence with a verb and an object

S (没)把 O V+ other element
 没  把说    清  楚
méi bǎhuàshuō qīngchǔ

You didn’t say it clearly.

The negation méi did not is placed before the co-verb bǎ in the above sentence. Modal verbs, adverbial de and co-verb phrases can also precede 把 bǎ. For example

S                     把 O V+ other element
要                把说      清    楚    吗?
yào              bǎhuàshuō qīngchu  ma

Would you like to say it clearly?

S                     把 O V+ other element
在这儿        把说       清    楚。
zài zhèr       bǎhuàshuō qīngchu

Say it clearly here.

S                      把 O V+ other element
一句一句地 把说      清     楚。
yí jùyí jù de   bǎhuàshuō qīngchu

Say it clearly, sentence by sentence.

 

The following list consists of five types of the most common elements that can be attached to verbs in 把 sentences.

1.      Complement of degree

S O V+ complement of degree
说      得  非  常      清     楚。
huàshuō de fēicháng qīngchu

You’ve said it very clearly indeed.

2.      Resultative complements apart from 见

S O V+ resultative complement
说       错    了。
huàshuō chuò le

You’ve said it wrong.

3.      Directional complements

S O V+ directional complement
衬衫拿 进来。
chènshānná jìnlai

Bring in the shirt.

4.      …action measures

S O V+ action measure
房间整      理一下。
fángjiānzhěnglǐ yíxià

Tidy up the room a little.

5.      …着(as a continuous aspect)

S O V+ 着
开  着。
ménkāi zhe

Leave the door open.

Potential verb complements are not used in the 把 bǎ construction; instead the modal verb 能 néng is placed before 把 bǎ.

S            把 O V+ other element
能       把吃   完    吗?
néng  bǎfànchī wán ma

Can you finish this meal?

 

Quiz

例如:把 他 桌子上 放在了 手机

他把手机放在了桌子上。

【1】门   请   把   打  开

________________________________________

【2】吧   药   快把   吃了

________________________________________

【3】见面的时间   没把   他   告诉   我

________________________________________

【4】把   给阿姨   看一看   照片   记得

________________________________________

If you want check you answer, send your sentences to me via comment 🙂

September 22, 2011

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